Issue:
Arctic Warming
Arctic ice. (Florian Schulz / visionsofthewild.com
We can slow the pace of warming and melting in the Arctic in the near term by reducing emissions of soot and smog, which would have fast climate benefits, especially in the Arctic where black carbon pollution accelerates the melting of ice and snow.
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Black Carbon Resources

Recent evidence provides hope that fast action to reduce soot emissions can slow global and Arctic warming quickly enough to avoid catastrophic tipping points such as the melting of sea ice and the Greenland ice sheet.

Earthjustice is working nationally and internationally for stricter standards and promote the transfer of clean technologies to reduce these "black carbon" emissions.

Technology exists now to reduce emissions of this toxic global warming pollutant. Fast action is also essential to protect health, as soot is a leading cause of mortality from air pollution.

This page is a resource for the following information on black carbon:

1.   Earthjustice Action

2.   Recent News Reports

3.   Scientists' Testimonies

4.   Proposed U.S. Legislation

5.   Scientific Articles


 

Earthjustice Action on Black Carbon

Stopsoot.org features a two minute animated video on black carbon's effects and an action alert to U.S. decision makers.

Black Carbon, Glaciers & Sea Level Rise: Earthjustice & Australia Climate Justice Program Petition UNESCO's World Heritage Committee

Earthjustice Comments to EPA on Black Carbon and Proposed Rule Making 

Earthjustice Petition to EPA on Air Pollution from Ships 


Recent News and Policy Reports on Black Carbon and its Climate Effects

Science Daily, Kerosene Lamps Identified as Big Source of Black Carbon (Nov. 28, 2012)

U.S. EPA Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis, Review of the Draft Report to Congress on Black Carbon (2011)

Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone, Summary for Decision Makers, UNEP AND WMO (2011)

Task Force on Short-Lived Climate Forcers Progress Report and Recommendation to Ministers, Arctic Council (May 2011)

Damping Soot Emissions Could Buy Time  Michael Richardson, The Japan Times Online, Feb. 26, 2010

Cars Emerge as Key Atmospheric Warming Force: Study  Phys.org, Feb. 19, 2010

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), (2009) Black Carbon e-Bulletin Part I, November 2009.

Black Carbon: A Visible But Overlooked Factor in Global Warming  Bryan Walsh, TIME, November 13, 2009

Soot Clouds Pose Threat To Himalayan Glaciers  Randeep Ramesh and Suzanne Goldberg, Guardian UK, October 4, 2009

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), (2009) Black Carbon e-Bulletin Part I, September 2009.

The Full Climate Change Tale  Jessica Seddon Wallack, LiveMint.com/Wall St. Journal, September 23, 2009

Climate Change Campaigners Should Not Have Fixated on CO2  Geoffrey Lean, Telegraph UK, September 18, 2009

CO2 Is Not The Only Cause of Climate Change  Achim Steiner, Guardian UK,  September 11, 2009

Climate Change-- UNEP Points to Accelerated Opportunities for Action  UNEP, September 4, 2009

No Safe Harbor: The Shipping Industry's Pollution Problem (Part I: Low Hanging Fruit; Part II: A Lack of Authority; Part III: Off the Hook)  Adam Sarvana, DC Bureau, August 31 - September 3, 2009

Quick Fix to Slow Global Warming?  Margaret Lowman, Sarasota Herald-Tribune, August 17, 2009

An Analysis of Black Carbon Mitigation as a Response to Climate Change  David Montgomery et al., A Perspective on Black Carbon Mitigation as a Response to Climate Change, Copenhagen Consensus Center, August 14, 2009

A Perspective Paper on Black Carbon Mitigation as a Response to Climate Change  Milind Kandlikar et al., Copenhagen Consensus Center, August 14, 2009

Black Carbon: A Review and Policy Recommendations  Karen Bice et al., Princeton University Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, 2009

Soot, methane and forests: The cheapest ways of addressing climate change?  Kate MacKenzie, FT Energysource, August 14, 2009

Saving Fuel But Melting Ice Faster  John Perlin, Miller-McCune, August 7, 2009

Can Roadway Design Air Quality Impacts  Richard Baldauf et al, August 4, 2009

Black Carbon E-Bulletin  UNEP, July 2009

Black Carbon and Global Warming: A Promising Short-term Approach?  Zeke Hausfather, Yale Forum on Climate Change, July 9, 2009

Climate's Smoky Spectre  Jeff Tollefson, Nature, July 2, 2009

Limiting Black Soot and Ozone -- Buying Time against Climate Change  Michael Ricciardi, In Global, May 30, 2009

Asian Emissions Soar  Kate Ravilious, environmentalresearchweb, May 1, 2009

US climate change denier James Inhofe joins Al Gore in fight against soot  Suzanne Goldenberg, Guardian UK, May 5, 2009 (with quote from Earthjustice attorney Erika Rosenthal)

Arctic Nations Order Investigation of Black Carbon, Blamed for Significant Ice Melt  Laura Shin, Solve Climate, April 29, 2009

Cookstoves, Carbon, and Climate  Jeremy Carl, Indian Express, April 28, 2009

Senate Foes Agree on Dangerous Pollutant  Andrew Revkin, New York Times, April 22, 2009

New Push Focuses on Quick Ways to Curb Global Warming  Eli Kintisch, Science, April 17, 2009

Third-World Stove Soot Is Target in Climate Fight   Elizabeth Rosenthal, New York Times, April 16, 2009 (with quote from Earthjustice attorney Erika Rosenthal) 

Tackling Soot Could Reduce Arctic Ice Melt  Fiona Harvey, FT Energysource , April 8, 2009

Black Carbon an Easy Target for Climate Change  John Lash, Policy Innovations, February 9, 2009

Soot reduction 'could help to stop global warming'  Geoffrey Lean, The Independent, UK, January 4, 2009

Plumes of Arctic Haze Traced to Russia, Kazakhstan  Sid Perkins, Science News, February 13, 2009

Prescription for Arctic Melting: Clear the Air Down South  Elizabeth Grossman, Scientific American, January 29, 2009

Study Gets Inside the World's "Brown Cloud"  Deena Guzderg, Time, Friday, Jan. 23, 2009

Dirty Snow Causes Early Runoff In Cascades, Rockies  ScienceDaily, Jan. 13, 2009

AMAP/ Bluestein, J. et al. (2008), Sources and Mitigation Opportunities to Reduce Emission of Short-term Arctic Climate Forcers, AMAP Technical Report No. 2, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway.

Trimming smog and soot offer immediate impact on climate change, study says  Douglas Fischer, Daily Climate, December 12, 2008

Winter fog – a health and environmental hazard  R. Ghauri, The News International, December 30, 2008

Soot darkens ice, stokes runaway Arctic melt: study  Alister Doyle, Reuters Canada, Dec 2, 2008

 

 

Testimonies of Black Carbon Scientists to U.S. Congress, 2007

Dr. Tami Bond

Dr. V. Ramanathan

Dr. C. Zender

Dr. M. Jacobson

Dr. J. Schwartz


Proposed U.S. Legislation on Black Carbon:  

Senator Carper's Black Carbon Study in Senate Interior Appropriations Bill HR 2996, passed September 24, 2009

In the Senate: S.849: A bill to require the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a study on black carbon emissions.

In the House of Representatives: H.R.1760: To mitigate the effects of black carbon emissions in the United States and throughout the world.
 


Recent Scientific Articles on Black Carbon (use your Find function (Ctrl F) to search by author) 

Black carbon climate effects

Bahadur, R., et al., Impact of California’s air pollution laws on black carbon and their implications for direct radiative forcing, 45 Atmos Env 1162 (2011).

Bahadur, R., et al., Response to Comments on Impact of California’s air pollution laws on black carbon and their implications for direct radiative forcing, 45 Atmos Env 4119 (2011).

Boucher, O. and M.S. Reddy (2008), Climate trade-off between black carbon and carbon dioxide emissions, Energy Policy, 36, 193-200.

Chung, C. E., et. al. (2005), Global anthropogenic aerosol direct forcing derived from satellite and ground-based observations, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.110, D24207, doi:10.1029/2005JD006356.

Chung, S.H. and J.H. Sienfeld (2002), Global distribution and climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, No. D19.

Chung, S. and J. Seinfeld (2005) Climate response of direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic black carbon, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, D11102, doi:10.1029/2004JD005441.

Fletcher, Christopher and Paul Kushner, Circulation Responses to Snow Albedo Feedback in Climate Change, 36 Geophys. Res. Lett L09702 (2009).

Forster et al. (2007), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Chapter 2, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA.

Hansen, J., et al. (2005a), Earth's energy imbalance: Confirmation and implications, Science, 308, 1431–1435.

Hansen, J., et al. (2005b), Efficacy of climate forcings, J. Geophys. Res., 110(D18104), doi:10.1029/2005JD005,776.

Jacobson M.Z. (2000), A physically based treatment of elemental carbon optics: implications for global direct forcing of aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 217-220.

Jacobson, M.Z. (2001), Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature, 409, 695-697.

Jacobson, M. Z. (2002), Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon plus organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D19), 4410, doi:10.1029/2001JD001,376.

Jacobson, M. Z. (2003), Reply to comment by J. Feichter et al. on ''Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming,'' J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4768,doi:10.1029/2002JD003299.

Jacobson, M.Z. (2004), The climate response of fossil-fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for soot's feedback to snow and sea ice albedo and emissivity, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D2,201.

Jacobson, M.Z. (2006) Effects of Externally-Through-Internally-Mixed Soot Inclusions Within Clouds and Precipitation on Global Climate, J. Phys. Chem. A. 110 (21), pp 6860–6873 DOI: 10.1021/jp056391r.

Jurado, E., and J. Dachs (2008), Seasonality in the "grasshopping" and atmospheric residence times of persistent organic pollutants over the oceans, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L17805, doi:10.1029/2008GL034698.

Kirkevag, A., et al. (2008), On the additivity of climate response to anthropogenic aerosols and CO2, and the enhancement of future global warming by carbonaceous aerosols, Tellus, 60A, 513-527.

Levy, H., et al. (eds.) (2008) Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.2.

Novakov, T., et al. (2005), Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, D21205.

Penner, J. E. (2003), Comment on ''Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming'' by M. Z. Jacobson, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4771, doi:10.1029/2002JD003364, 2003.

Ramana, M. V. et al. (2007), Albedo, atmospheric solar absorption and heating rate measurements with stacked UAVs, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133: 1913–1931, DOI: 10.1002/qj.172.

Ramanathan, V. and G. Carmichael (2008), Global and Regional climate changes as due to black carbon, Nature Geoscience, 1, 221-227.

Ramanathan, V and Y. Feng (2008), On avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system: Formidable challenges ahead, PNAS, 105, no. 38 _ 14245–14250.

Ramanathan, V. and Y. Feng (2009), Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives, Atmospheric Environment, 43, 37-50, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.063.

Reddy, M. S. and O. Boucher (2007), Climate impact of black carbon emitted from energy consumption in the world's regions, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L11802, doi:10.1029/2006GL028904.

Rosenfeld, D. et al. (2008) Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation? 321 Science 1309.

Schwarz, J.P. et al., Heating Rates and Surface Dimming Due to Black Carbon Aerosol Absorption Associated With a Major U.S. City, 36 Geophys. Res. Lett. Li5807 (2009).

Shichtel, B., et al., Comments on Impact of California’s air pollution laws on black carbon and their implications for direct radiative forcing by R. Bahadur et al, 45 Atmos Env 4116 (2011).

Shindell, D., et al. (2008), Climate forcing and air quality change due to regional emissions reductions by economic sector, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 8, 11609–11642.

Streets, D.G., et al. (2004), On the future of carbonaceous aerosol emissions, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109 (D24), doi:10.1029/2004JD004902.

Streets, D. G., et al. (2006), Two-decadal aerosol trends as a likely explanation of the global dimming/brightening transition, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, L15806, doi:10.1029/2006GL026471.

Streets, D. G. (2007), Dissecting future aerosol emissions: warming tendencies and mitigation opportunities, Climatic Change, 81:313–330 DOI 10.1007/s10584-006-9112-8.

Woo, J.-H., S. He, and P. Amar (2007), Development of Mid-Century Anthropogenic Emissions Inventory in Support of Regional Air Quality Modeling under Influence of Climate Change, Journal of Air & Waste Management Association.

Black carbon inventories and emissions mitigation

Bond, T. C., et al. (2004), A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, J. Geophys. Res., 109(D14203), doi:10.1029/2003JD003,697.

Bond, T.C., et al. (2006), Climate relevant properties of primary particulate emissions from oil and natural gas combustion, Atmospheric Environment, 40, 3574-3587.

Bond, T.C., et al. (2007), Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2006GB002840.

Bond, Tami (2009) What Is Black Carbon and Where Does It Come From?, ICCT Workshop on Black Carbon, Mexico City.

Bond, T.C., and H. Sun (2005), Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?, Environmental Science and Technology, 39, 5921-5926.

Boucher, O. and M.S. Reddy (2008), Climate trade-off between black carbon and carbon dioxide emissions, Energy Policy, 36, 193-200.

Fuglestvedt, J., et al.(2008), Climate forcing from the transport sectors, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, no. 2.

Grieshop, A., et al, (2009) A black-carbon mitigation wedge, Nature Geoscience 2, 8, 533-534.

Molina, Mario et al., Reducing Abrupt Climate Change Risk Using the Montreal Protocol and Other Regulatory Actions to Complement Cuts in CO2 Emissions, 106 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20616 (2009).

Montgomery, D. et al., (2009) An Analysis of Black Carbon Mitigation as a Response to Climate Change Copenhagen Consensus Center.

Kandlikar, M. et al. (2009) A Perspective Paper on Black Carbon Mitigation as a Response to Climate Change Copenhagen Consensus Center.

Streets, D. G. (2007), Dissecting future aerosol emissions: warming tendencies and mitigation opportunities, Climatic Change, 81:313–330 DOI 10.1007/s10584-006-9112-8.

Novakov, T., et al. (2003), Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols, Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (6), 1324, doi:10.1029/2002GL016345.

Sato, M., et al. (2003), Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100 (11), 6319-6324.

Unger, Nadine et al., Attribution of Climate Forcing To Economic Sectors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci (2010).

Black carbon in the Arctic, and on snow and ice

 AMAP/ Quinn, P. et al. (2008), The Impact of Short Lived Pollutants on Arctic Climate, AMAP Technical Report No. 1, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway.

AMAP/ Bluestein, J. et al. (2008), Sources and Mitigation Opportunities to Reduce Emission of Short-term Arctic Climate Forcers, AMAP Technical Report No. 2, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway.

Eleftheriadis, K., S. Vratolis, and S. Nyeki (2009), Aerosol black carbon in the European Arctic: Measurements at Zeppelin station, Ny-Alesund, Svalbard from 1998–2007, Geophysical Research Letters, v,. 36, L02809, doi:10.1029/2008GL035741.

Elmquist, M., et al, (2008), Pan-Arctic patterns in black carbon sources and fluvial discharges deduced from radiocarbon and PAH source apportionment markers in estuarine surface sediments, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, v. 22, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2007GB002994.

Fisher, J.A., et al., Source Attribution and Interannual Variability of Arctic Pollution in Spring Constrained by Aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC) and satellite (AIRS) Observations of Carbon Monoxide, 9 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 19035 (2009)

Flanner, M. G., and C. S. Zender (2006), Linking snowpack microphysics and albedo evolution, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12208, doi:10.1029/2005JD006834.

Flanner, M. G., et al. (2007), Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11,202, doi:10.1029/2006JD008,003.

Flanner, M.G., et al., (2009) Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2481.

Fletcher, Christopher and Paul Kushner, Circulation Responses to Snow Albedo Feedback in Climate Change, 36 Geophys. Res. Lett. L09702 (2009).

Garrett, T.J., et al, (2009), Acceleration by aerosol of a radiative-thermodynamic cloud feedback influencing Arctic surface warming, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19804.

Garrett, T. J., and C. Zhao (2006), Increased Arctic cloud longwave emissivity associated with pollution from mid-latitudes, Nature, 440(7085), 787–789.

Granier, C., et al. (2006), Ozone pollution from future ship traffic in the Arctic northern passages, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L13807, doi:10.1029/2006GL026180.

Hall, A., and X. Qu (2006), Using the current seasonal cycle to constrain snow albedo feedback in future climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(L03502), doi:10.1029/2005GL025,127.

Hansen, J. and L. Nazarenko (2004), Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos, Proc. Nat'l Acad Sci USA 101 (2) 423-428.

Hegg, Dean et al., Source Attribution of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow, 43 Env. Sci. Technol. 4016 (2009).

Hirdman, D. et al. Some Identification of Short-Lived Air Pollutants in the Arctic Using Statistical Analysis of Measurement Data and Particle Dispersion Model Output, 10 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 669 (2010).

Jacobson, M.Z. (2004), The climate response of fossil-fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for soot's feedback to snow and sea ice albedo and amissivity, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D2,201.

Koch, D., and J. Hansen (2005), Distant origins of Arctic black carbon: A Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 110(D04204), doi:10.1029/2004JD005,296.

Koch, D., et al. (2007), Global impacts of aerosols from particular source regions and sectors, Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, D02205, doi:10.1029/2005JD007024.

McConnell, J. R., et al. (2007), 20th-century industrial black carbon emissions altered arctic climate forcing, Science, 317(5843), 1381–1384, doi:10.1126/science.1144,856.

McConnell, J.R. and R. Edwards (2008), Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 34, 12140-12144.

 Qian, Y., et al. (2009), Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D03108, doi:10.1029/2008JD011039.

 Quinn, P. K., et al. (2008), Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: Their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8, 1723-1735.

Sarofim, M. et al. (2009), Current Policies, Emission Trends and Mitigation Options for Black Carbon in the Arctic Region, Draft White Paper by an Ad Hoc Working Group, Unpublished.

Sharma, S., et al. (2004), Long term trends of the black carbon concentrations in the Canadian Arctic, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D15203.

Shindell, D., et al. (2008) A multi-model assessment of pollution transport to the Arctic, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5353–5372.

von Schneidemesser, Erika et al., Concentrations and sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere of Summit, Greenland, 42 Atmos. Env. 4155 (2009).

Waliser, D., et al. (2009) Simulating the Cold Season Snowpack: The Impact of Snow Albedo and Multi-Layer Snow Physics, California Climate Change Center, CEC-500-2009-030-D.

Warneke, C., et al. (2009), Biomass burning in Siberia and Kazakhstan as an important source for haze over the Alaskan Arctic in April 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02813, doi:10.1029/2008GL036194.

Warren, S. and A.D. Clarke (1990), Soot in the Atmosphere and Snow Surface of Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, no. D2, p. 1811-1816.

Xie, Z., et al. (2006), Summertime aerosol chemical components in the marine boundary layer of the Arctic Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D10309.

Zender, Charles et al. (2009) Albedo Reduction by Black Carbon in Snow: Measurments and Implications, Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

Black carbon in Asia: the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau, China and India

Babu S., et al. (2008), Aircraft measurements of aerosol black carbon from a coastal location in the north-east part of peninsular India during ICARB, Journal of Earth System Science, 117, S1, 263–271.

Badarinath, K.V.S., et al. (2008), Impact of biomass burning on aerosol properties over tropical wet evergreen forests of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Atmospheric Research., doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.03.023.

Badarinath, K.V.S., et al. (2008), Impact of biomass burning on aerosol properties over tropical wet evergreen forests of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Atmospheric Research., doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.03.023.

Bonasoni, P., et al. (2007), The ABC-Pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory in Himalaya for aerosol, ozone and halocarbon measurements, Science of the Total Environment, 391, 252-261.

Cao, Guoliang, Inventory of Black Carbon and Organic Carbon Emissions from China, 40 Atmos. Env. 6516 (2006).

Cao, J., et al., Concentrations, seasonal variations and transport of carbonaceous aerosols at a remote Mountainous region in western China, Atmos. Env. 43, 4444-4452 (2009).

Carmichael, Gregory et al., Asian Aerosols: Current and Year 2030 Distribution and Implications to Human Health and Regional Climate Changes, 43 Env. Sci. Technol. 5811 (2009).

Clarke, A., et al. (2004) Size distributions and Mixtures of Black Carbon and Dust Aerosol in Asian Outflow: Physio-chemistry, Optical Properties, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D15S09.

Garland, R. M., et al. (2008), Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5161-5186.

Gustafsson, Ö., et al.(2009), Brown Clouds over South Asia: Biomass or Fossil Fuel Combustion? Science 323, 495, DOI: 10.1126/science.11

Huebert, B., et al. (2003), An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for qualifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climate impacts, Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, D23, 8633.

Lasserre, F., et al. (2008), A model tool for assessing real-time mixing of mineral and anthropogenic pollutants in East Asia: a case study of April 2005, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3603-3622.

Meehl, G. A., J. M. Arblaster, W.D. Collins (2008), Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols on the Indian Monsoon, Journal of Climate, 21.

Menon, Surabi et al. (2002), Climate Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and India. Science, 297, 2250-2253.

Menon, Surabi et al. (2009) Black Carbon Aerosols and the Third Polar Ice Cap, 9 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 26593.

Ming, J., et al. (2008), Black carbon record based on a shallow Himalayan ice core and its climatic implications, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1343–1352.

Moteki, N., et al. (2007) Evolution of mixing state of black carbon particles: Aircraft measurements over the western Pacific in March 2004, Geophysical Research Letters, V. 34, L11803, doi:10.1029/2006GL028943.

Ming, J., et al. (2009), Black Carbon (BC) in the snow of glaciers in west China an dits potential effects on albedos, Atmos. Res. 92, 114-123.

Ming, J., et al. (2008), Black carbon record based on a shallow Himalayan ice core and its climatic implications, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1343–1352.

Qian, Y. et al. (2009), Heavy Pollution Suppresses Light Rain in China: Observations and Modeling, J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00K02.

Ramanathan, V. et al. (2007) Atmospheric brown clouds: Hemispherical and regional variations in long-range transport, absorption, and radiative forcing, Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, D22S21.

Ramanathan. V. et al. (2007) Warming clouds in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption, Nature, 448, 575-579.

Ramanathan, V. et al. (2008) Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on ASIA, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Smith, K.R., et al. (2000), Greenhouse implications of household stoves: An analysis for India, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 25, 741-63.

USAID (2010) Black Carbon Emissions in Asia: Sources, Impacts and Abatement Opportunities, USAID/Asia.

USAID (2010) Executive Summary of Black Carbon Emissions in Asia: Sources, Impacts and Abatement Opportunities, USAID/Asia.

Wu, J., et al. (2008), Simulation of direct effects of black carbon aerosol on temperature and hydrological cycle in Asia by a Regional Climate Model, Meteorol Atmos Phys 100, 179–193 (2008)

Xiao, Cunde et al., Observed Changes of Cryosphere in China Over the Second Half of the 20th Century: An Overview, 46 Ann. Glaciol. 282 (2007) [No black carbon content, but evidence of glacier retreat across China.]

Xie, Zi-Chu et al., Modeling the Response of Glacier Systems to Climate Warming in China, 43 Ann. Glaciol. 313 (2006).

Xu, Baiqing, Elemental and Organic Carbon Measurements with a Two-Step Heating-Gas Chromatography System in Snow Samples from the Tibetan Plateau, 43 Ann. Glaciol. 257 (2006).

Xu, Baiqing et al. Black Soot and the Survival of Tibetan Glacier, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Early Edition (2009).

Yan, P., et al. (2008), The measurement of aerosol optical properties at a rural site in Northern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2229-2242.

Yao, T. et al., (2007) Recent Glacial Retreat and Its Impact on Hydrological Processes on the Tibetan Plateau, China, and Surrounding Regions, Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Res. 39, 642.

Zhang, J. and Y. Yin (2008), Numerical Simulations of the Effect of Black Carbon Aerosol on Regional Climate in China, Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 2008, ICBBE 2008, The 2nd International Conference on, 16-18 May 2008 Page(s):3831 – 3834.

Zhang, Q. et al. (2009), Asian Emissions in 2006 for the NASA INTEX-B Mission, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4081.

Black carbon in the Americas

Battye, W., K. Boyer and T. Pace (2002), Methods for Improving Global Inventories of Black Carbon and Organic Carbon Particulates, Report No. 68-D-98-046 Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by EC/R Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

Baumgardner, D., et al. (2008), Scavenging of black carbon by ice crystals over the North Pacific, Geophysical Research Letters, v. 35,

Clarke, A., et al. (2007), Biomass burning and aerosol pollution over North America: Organic components and their influence on spectral optical properties and humidification response, Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, D12S18.

Jiang, M., et al. (2005), Vehicle fleet emissions of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants measured by a mobile laboratory in Mexico City, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 3377–3387.

Kirchstetter, T.W. et al.(2008), Black carbon concentrations and diesel vehicle emission factors derived from coefficient of haze measurements in California 1967-2003, Atmospheric Environment, 42, 480-491.

Li, W., et al. (2008), Observed change of the standardized precipitation index, its potential cause and implications to future climate change in the Amazon region, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2008) 363, 1767–1772, doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.0022.

Black carbon in Europe

Matthias, V., (2008), The aerosol distribution in Europe derived with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model: comparison to near surface in situ and sunphotometer measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5077-5097.

Novakov, T. and J.E. Hansen (2004), Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: an empirical analysis, Atmos. Environ., 38, 4155-4163.

Sciare, J., et al. (2008), Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5551-5563.

Black carbon and ships

Corbett, J. et al. (2007), Mortality from Ship Emissions: A Global Assessment, Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(24):8512-8.

Dalsøren, S. B., et al. (2009), Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2171-2194.

Granier, C., et al. (2006), Ozone pollution from future ship traffic in the Arctic northern passages, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L13807, doi:10.1029/2006GL026180.

Jacobson, M.Z. and D. Streets (2009) Influence of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, natural emissions, and air quality, J. Geophys. Res. 114, DO8118.

Lack, D. et al. (2011) Impact of Fuel Quality Regulation and Speed Reductions on Shipping Emissions: Implications for Climate and Air Quality, Environmental Science and Technology.

Lack, D., et al. (2008), Light absorbing carbon emissions from commercial shipping, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L13815, doi:10.1029/2008GL033906.

Lack, D., et al. (2009), Particulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical and optical properties, Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D00F04.

Lauer, A., et al. (2007), Global model simulations of the impact of ocean-going ships on aerosols, clouds, and the radiation budget, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5061-5079.

Marmer, E., et al. (2009), What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea? Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 7155–7211.

Peters, G., et al., Future emissions from shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic, 11 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5305 (2011).

Black carbon and aircraft

Grassl, H., and D. Brockhagen, (2007) Climate forcing of aviation emissions in high altitudes and comparison of metrics, An update according to the Fourth Assessment Report, IPCC 2007.

Hendricks, J., et al. (2005), Do aircraft black carbon emissions affect cirrus clouds on the global scale? Geophysical Research Letters, v. 32, L12814, doi:10.1029/2005GL022740.

Liu, X. et al. (2009) Influence of anthropogenic sulfate and black carbon on upper tropospheric clouds in the NCAR CAM3 model coupled to the IMPACT global aerosol model, J. Geophys. Res. 114, D03204.

Pitari, G., et al. (2008), Radiative forcing from particle emissions by future supersonic aircraft, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 4069-4084.

Penner, J. et al. (2009) Possible influence of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds and anthropogenic forcing, Atmos. Chem & Phys. 9 (3)879-896.

Black carbon physical properties

Andreae, M. O. and A. Gelencsér (2006), Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3131-3148.

Cozic, J. S., et al. (2008), Black carbon enrichment in atmospheric ice particle residuals observed in lower tropospheric mixed phase clouds, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D15209, doi:10.1029/2007JD009266.

Derimian, Y., et al. (2008), The role of iron and black carbon in aerosol light absorption, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3623-3637.

Henson, B. F. (2007), An adsorption model of insoluble particle activation: Application to black carbon, J. Geophys. Res.,112, D24S16, doi:10.1029/2007JD008549.

Hungershoefer, K., et al. (2008), Modeling the optical properties of fresh biomass burning aerosol produced in a smoke chamber: results from the EFEU campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3427-3439.

Khalizov, A. F., et al. (2009), Enhanced Light Absorption and Scattering by Carbon Soot Aerosol Internally Mixed with Sulfuric Acid, J. Phys. Chem. A, vol. 113 (6), 1066-1074, DOI: 10.1021/jp807531n.

Kirchstetter, T.W. and T. Novakov (2007), Controlled generation of black carbon particles from a diffusion flame and applications in evaluating black carbon measurement methods, Atmospheric Environment. vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1874-1888.

Lohmann, U., (2008), Global anthropogenic aerosol effects on convective clouds in ECHAM5-HAM, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2115-2131.

Moffet, R. and K. Prather (2009) In-situ measurements of the mixing state and optical properties of soot with impolications for radiative forcing estimates, 106 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 11872.

Schwarz, J. P., et al. (2008), Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D03203, doi:10.1029/2007JD009042.

Zhang, Y. (2008), Online-coupled meteorology and chemistry models: history, current status, and outlook, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2895–2932.

Black carbon and health

Corbett, J. et al. (2007), Mortality from Ship Emissions: A Global Assessment, Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(24):8512-8.

Jiang, M., et al. (2005), Vehicle fleet emissions of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants measured by a mobile laboratory in Mexico City, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 3377–3387.

Krewski, D., et al., (2009), Extended Analysis of the American Cancer Society Study of Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality, Health Effects Institute.

Lin, W., et al., Acute Respiratory Inflammation in Children and Black Carbon in Ambient Air Before and During the 2008 Beijing Olympics, Environ. Health. Persp. (2011).

Liu, J. et al. (2009), Evaluating intercontinental transport of fine aerosols: (2) Global health impact, Atmos. Env. 43, 4339-4373.

Novakov, T. and J.E. Hansen (2004), Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: an empirical analysis, Atmos. Environ., 38, 4155-4163.

Novakov, T., et al. (2005), Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, D21205.

O'Neill, M., P. L. Kinney,. and A. J. Cohen (2008), Environmental Equity in Air Quality Management: Local and International Implications for Human Health and Climate Change, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, PartA, 71:9,570 — 577.

Smith, Kirk et al., Public Health Benefits of Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Health Implications of Short Lived Greenhouse Pollutants, 374 The Lancet 2091 (2009).

World Health Organization (2003) Health Aspects of Air Pollution with Particulate Matter, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide, WHO Working Group, Bonn, Germany, 13-15 January 2003.

OTHER ARCTIC ISSUES (BEYOND BLACK CARBON)

AMAP (2009) Summary -- The Greenland Ice Sheet in a Changing Climate: Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2009

Axford, Y. et al., (2009), Recent changes in a remote Arctic lake are unique within the past 200,000 years, Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. Oct. 19, 2009

Cheng, H. et al, (2009), Ice Age Terminationas, Science 326, 5950, p.248.

Comeau, S., et al. (2009), Impact of ocean acidification on a key Arctic pelagic mollusc (Limacina helicina), Biogeosciences 6, 1877- 1882.

Dalsoren, S. et al. (2010), Impacts of the Large Increase in International Ship Traffic 2000-2007 on Tropospheric Ozone and Methane, Enviro. Sci. Technol. 44, 2482-2489. 

den Broeke, M. et al. (2009) Partitioning Recent Greenland Mass Loss, Science 326, 984.

Ford, J., (2009) Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population, Env. Res. Let. 4.

Kerr, R. (2009) Both of the World's Ice Sheets May be Shrinking Faster and Faster, Science 326, 5950, 217.

Notz, Dirk, The Future of Ice Sheets and Sea Ice: Between Reversible Retreat and Unstoppable Loss, 106 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20590 (2009).

Rockstrom, J. (2009) A Safe Operating Space for Humanity, Nature 461, September 24, 2009, 472-475.

Schiermeier, Quirin, Arctic Sea Ice Levels Third Lowest On Record, Nature, 18 Sept. 2009.

Severinghaus, J. (2009) Monsoons and Meltdowns, Science 326, October 9, 2009, 240-241. 

Wingham, Duncan, Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Pine Island Glacier Thinning, 36 Geophys. Res. Lett. L17501 (2009).

Global Warming Takes a Toll on Arctic Ecosystem, Moises Velasquez-Manoff, Christian Science Monitor, October 29, 2009.

Xu, Y. and V. Ramanathan (2012) Latitudinally asymmetric response response of global surface temperature: Implications for regional surface change, Scripps Institution of Oceanography.