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Why Puerto Rico Needs Solar for a Green Energy Future

They call it the “Island of Enchantment,” but if fossil fuel companies have it their way, the magic simply won’t last.

A protester waves the Puerto Rican flag during a public protest against the privatization of the electric power service in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in June 2021.

A protester waves the Puerto Rican flag during a public demonstration against the privatization of the island's electric power service in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in June 2021.

Alejandro Granadillo / NurPhoto via Getty Images

In 2018, a Puerto Rico tourism campaign set out to “enchant” travelers with a story of the island’s recovery in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria. Puerto Rico’s natural beauty, from its abundant marine ecosystems to the rolling hills, waterfalls, and wildlife of El Yunque National Rainforest, offers much enchantment, indeed.

But the island’s recovery isn’t over. In fact, Puerto Rico’s future is at greater risk than it has ever been.

Tell the Federal Emergency Management Agency that you want clean energy for Puerto Rico:

Four years after Hurricane Maria plunged Puerto Rico into a yearlong energy crisis, the island remains vulnerable to devastating power outages. While over 3,000 people died as a result of the storm, most of those fatalities weren’t caused by the hurricane itself, but rather the sustained loss of power.

With winds topping 170 mph, Hurricane Maria downed transmission lines that carry electricity across the island from power plants in the south to population and tourism centers in the north. As a result, life-saving medical equipment and medicines that required refrigeration became useless. 

Multiple people sit on a curbside. It is night time. Limited light is coming from scarce sources. The face of Jamie Degraff, a San Juan resident, is visible and in focus.
San Juan resident Jaime Degraff sits on a dark curbside with his neighbors, waiting for the city's electrical grid to be fixed after Hurricane Maria ravaged Puerto Rico on September 23, 2017.
Joe Raedle / Getty Images

Avoidable catastrophes like this should not be a mainstay of Puerto Rico's energy future. Like all U.S. citizens, the people of Puerto Rico have the right to dispense with outdated energy technology that relies on imported coal, oil, and fracked gas and vulnerable transmission lines.

Today, the island is poised for an energy revolution. Earthjustice and our partners in Puerto Rico are fighting for a clean, resilient, and localized energy system across the island through rooftop solar and battery storage.

What would solar energy achieve for the people of Puerto Rico?

Comunidad Guayamesa Unidos por tu Salud volunteers install a rooftop solar power system in Guayama, Puerto Rico, in March 2021. They are wearing sun hats and mask. It is sunny. Solar panels are being carried and set in place.
Volunteers with the group Comunidad Guayamesa Unidos por tu Salud install a rooftop solar power system in Guayama, Puerto Rico, in March 2021.
Erika P. Rodriguez for Earthjustice

1. On a sunny island, solar is a safe and reliable energy alternative to fossil fuels.

Studies have shown Puerto Rico can be a model for large-scale implementation of rooftop solar energy and battery storage, given the island’s year-round sunlight. A 2020 report found that rooftop solar has the potential to provide four times the island’s residential electricity needs.

2. Solar energy would proactively address energy injustice in Puerto Rico.

The median income in Puerto Rico is one-third of the U.S. median, yet residents pay up to twice as much for electricity. Equipping every Puerto Rican household with rooftop solar would cost energy users far less than what they pay for imported fossil fuels.

Table with cost figures which show that Puerto Ricans pay twice as much for electricity as mainland U.S. residents. Residential: Puerto Rico 22.86 cents/kWh. U.S. 13.29 cents/kWh. Commercial: Puerto Rico 23.40 cents/kWh. U.S. 11.13 cents/kWh. Industrial: Puerto Rico 23.12 cents/kWh. U.S. 7.01 cents/kWh.
U.S. Energy Information Administration

3. Rooftop solar would make Puerto Rico more resilient to climate disasters. 

A distributed rooftop solar network would not be as vulnerable to intense winds as the current system of power lines. After Hurricane Maria, it took nearly a year, and billions in taxpayer dollars, to restore power across the island.

4. Solar energy would improve public health outcomes across Puerto Rico.

Pollution from the burning of oil, coal, and gas, has been linked to cancer, heart disease, and respiratory illnesses. Replacing fossil fuels with solar energy would dramatically reduce toxic fossil-fuel emissions, making Puerto Rico a cleaner and healthier environment for residents and visitors.

5. Solar energy would bring economic power to the people of Puerto Rico.

With distributed rooftop solar, Puerto Ricans can become energy “prosumers” rather than consumers. By producing their own electricity, residents would no longer be reliant on energy services delivered by powerful, profit-seeking companies.

What stands in the way of Puerto Rico’s clean energy revolution?

Currently, two offshore fossil fuel companies, together called the LUMA consortium, are paid $125 million a year to supply and distribute energy from oil, coal, and fracked gas. If a catastrophic storm were to hit the island, LUMA’s contract has an escape clause that allows them to walk away from any obligation to provide Puerto Rico’s energy service. This is the latest example of private corporations upholding a colonial legacy that sacrifices people for profits in Puerto Rico.

Under the law, Puerto Rico must be powered with 100% renewable energy by 2050. Currently, only 3% of its energy is generated by renewables.

Nearly $10 billion of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) funds have been set aside to repair Puerto Rico's electrical grid. The companies responsible for supplying and distributing the island's electricity want to use some of those funds to build more fracked gas infrastructure. Such a move would set Puerto Rico on a path to decades of increased carbon emissions, harm to the environment and people’s health, and continued vulnerability to the impacts of climate disasters like Hurricane Maria.

How can you help?

Tell your FEMA officials that you want all emergency funds for Puerto Rico to advance climate resilience and climate justice on the island.

A view of El Yunque National Rainforest in eastern Puerto Rico.
A view of El Yunque National Rainforest in eastern Puerto Rico.
Erika P. Rodriguez for Earthjustice