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“The Kuskokwim River is our table …”
“… and it feeds our people throughout the year.”
“If the Donlin mine goes through …”
“ … and our river is contaminated ...”
“ ... the fish in it will be destroyed.”
– George Alexie, President of the Native Village of Eek, a federally recognized Tribal government whose members reside downstream from where the Donlin mine would be located

“The Kuskokwim River is our table, and it feeds our people throughout the year. …

Esther Green, Yup'ik Elder.
Diane McEachern
Esther Green, Yup'ik elder.

“If the Donlin mine goes through …”

The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta.
Peter Griffith / NASA

“… and our river is contaminated …”

Salmon swimming in the Kuskokwim River.
Dave Cannon

“ ... the fish in it will be destroyed.” – George Alexie, President of the Native Village of Eek, a federally recognized Tribal government whose members reside downstream from where the Donlin mine would be located

Dave Cannon
Fishing in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta area.

Nov. 2, 2021

Donlin Gold Mine Jeopardizes a Way of Life in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta

In the rich, wild expanse of southwest Alaska, mining company Donlin Gold is seeking to build the largest pure gold mine in the world — on a tributary of the vital Kuskokwim River.

The mine threatens the Kuskokwim River watershed and the entire Yukon‐Kuskokwim Delta, homeland of three distinct Alaska Native cultures — Yup’ik, Cup’ik, and Athabascan — comprising numerous Alaska Native Tribes.

Spanning an area slightly larger than the island of Manhattan, the vast open pit mine would be located along Crooked Creek, a salmon spawning stream that flows into the Kuskokwim.

Crooked Creek, a salmon spawning stream that flows into the Kuskokwim is where a vast open pit mine is slated be.
Crooked Creek, a salmon spawning stream that flows into the Kuskokwim is where a vast open pit mine is slated be.

Andreafsky Wilderness

Donlin
Gold Mine Project Site

Marshall

Sleetmute

Chevak

Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge

Tuluksak

Akiak

Nunapitchuk

Kasigluk

Bering Sea

Bethel

Kwethluk

Napakiak

Tununak

Nightmute

Eek

Nunivak
Island

Kwigillingok

Togiak Wilderness

Area of Detail

Kuskokwim Bay

© Mapbox / © Openstreetmap

Owned by Canada-based mining giants NovaGold and Barrick Gold, the Donlin mine would permanently destroy lands and waters that have nurtured Alaska Native ways of life for generations. This poses a grave threat to one of largest and most productive fisheries supporting sustenance and lifeways in the state of Alaska. (See environmental consequences of the mine.)

Faced with potentially disastrous consequences, more than a dozen Alaska Native Tribes in the region have adopted resolutions opposing the Donlin mine. Even more have come together to take legal action against the agencies that approved it.

The Kuskokwim provides a critical source of wild food and serves as a bedrock of identity and cultural values for Alaska Native Tribal citizens and community members living downstream from the mine site.

Photo of Esther Green, Yup'ik elder, with the quote: 'My mother raised me partnered with nature. Nature gave us everything. Our rich way of living from our ancestors must be protected and respected. That's why I Stand For Salmon!'
Graphic by Essie Bean / Photo by Diane McEachern
Esther Green, Yup'ik elder: "Our rich way of living from our ancestors must be protected and respected."
Caribou lichen and alpine azaleas in the tundra of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta.
Diane McEachern
Caribou lichen and alpine azaleas are part of the intricate tundra plant life in the Yukon‐Kuskokwim Delta.

More than half the annual subsistence harvest for people in this region consists of salmon. The fish are caught, prepared by hand, and preserved to feed families throughout the year. There are five species of salmon in the Kuskokwim, and other kinds of fish — such as rainbow smelt, whitefish, and trout — are also plentiful.

The Donlin mine would permanently alter this way of life.

Mercury deposits into surface waters would increase to dangerous levels, likely making the waters toxic for fish and the fish unsafe for consumption. Exposure to mercury — an extremely toxic substance — is known to cause significant and irreversible health issues.

If built, the Donlin Gold mine would provide the infrastructure to enable other mining projects, potentially turning southwest Alaska into a massive mining district.

Salmon are caught, prepared by hand, and preserved to feed families in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta throughout the year.
Rachel Ruston / Northern Center
In the Delta, salmon are caught, prepared by hand, and preserved to feed families throughout the year.
What’s at stake

The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta

Alaska Native Tribes who live downstream from the proposed mine site are facing off against the existential threat the Donlin Gold mine poses.

At a community rally in Bethel, the central hub of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, July 2018.
Rachel Ruston / Northern Center
At a community rally in Bethel, the central hub of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, July 2018.
Rainbow smelt, whitefish, and trout are widely fished in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta.
Dave Cannon
Rainbow smelt, whitefish, and trout are widely fished in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta.
Crowberries growing in the tundra.
Diane McEachern
Crowberries growing in the tundra.
Preparing and preserving salmon.
Rachel Ruston / Northern Center
Preparing and preserving salmon.
“In this age of uncertainty, one thing that the Indigenous peoples of the Yukon and Kuskokwim can always count on to provide for our people is the land, as it has for so many generations. In rural Alaska, our shelves will never be empty so long as we protect our waters and our land.”

– Beverly Hoffman, a Tribal citizen of Orutsararmiut Native Council and community activist

Tundra tea blossoms.
Diane McEachern
Tundra tea blossoms.
umble bee feasts on woolly lousewort in the tundray.
Diane McEachern
Bumble bee feasts on woolly lousewort.
Cranberries in the tundra.
Diane McEachern
Cranberries in the tundra.
Cranberry flowers in the tundra.
Diane McEachern
Cranberry flowers.
Sundews are part of the rich tundra life.
Diane McEachern
Sundews are part of the rich tundra life.
A white feather sparkled with dew rests among plant life in the tundra.
Diane McEachern
The Donlin Gold Mine would dramatically change the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, threatening the health and well-being of residents.

Represented by Earthjustice attorneys based in Anchorage and Juneau, a number of Yukon-Kuskokwim Tribes have waged a years-long battle to protect their river and force Donlin Gold and government agencies to follow the law.

Tribes that Earthjustice has represented include:

  • Akiak Native Community
  • Chuloonawick Native Village
  • Chevak Native Village
  • Native Village of Eek
  • Organized Village of Kwethluk
  • Native Village of Kwinhagak
  • Native Village of Kwigillingok
  • Kasigluk Traditional Elders Council
  • Native Village of Kongiganak
  • Village of Kotlik
  • Native Village of Marshall
  • Native Village of Napakiak
  • Native Village of Nightmute
  • Native Village of Nunapitchuk
  • Orutsararmiut Native Council
  • Tuluksak Native Community
  • Native Village of Tununak
The Threat

The Donlin Gold Mine

With a 25-square-mile footprint, an area larger than the size of Manhattan, the Donlin mine would be the largest pure gold mine in the world.

Environmental Consequences of Donlin Mine
  • Mercury Exposure
  • Tailings Dam
  • Mine Pit Lake
  • Dewatering Salmon Streams
  • Wetlands Destruction
  • Barge Traffic
  • Climate Pollution

While some metals may be essential for developing technologies to power our climate solutions, gold isn’t one of them.

Thirty percent of the gold produced worldwide in 2020 was used for jewelry, another 21% or more for bars and coins, and 43% for exchange-traded funds or central banks. Just 6% was used for electronics.

At the end of the day, the vast majority of wealth generated by this mining operation will flow into the pockets of a small group of investors and distant urban communities, while the environmental consequences of this immense operation are staggering.

Barrick Goldstrike Mines' Betze-Post Pit near Carlin, Nev., is one of the largest gold mines in the world. The 1.6-square-mile open pit is so large that it is visible from space.
Adella Harding / Elko Daily Free Press via AP
What open-pit gold mining looks like: Barrick Goldstrike Mines' Betze-Post Pit near Carlin, Nev., is one of the largest gold mines in the world. The open pit is so large that it is visible from space.

Mercury Exposure

  • The Donlin mine will result in a 40% increase in mercury deposition to surface waters near the mine, an increase over already high background levels.
  • Once in the environment, mercury can be transformed into methylmercury, a toxic substance that bioaccumulates up the food chain — particularly in fish. Bioaccumulation occurs when a chemical accumulates in the body tissue of organisms and increases in concentration at higher levels of the food chain as the organisms are consumed, including into the bodies of people who eat those food sources.
  • The State of Alaska’s draft Health Impact Assessment for the Donlin mine explains, “[m]ethyl mercury … accumulates in the tissues of fish with larger and older fish having higher levels of methyl mercury.  At high levels, mercury is a neurotoxin that can impair neurological development of fetuses, infants, and children.”

Tailings Dam in Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta

  • The mine would also require a 471-foot tailings dam to store nearly 600 million tons of mining waste.
  • The dam would need to stand in perpetuity.
  • If the dam ever failed, the release of these toxic materials would cause catastrophic damage to both Crooked Creek and the Kuskokwim River.

Hazardous Mine Pit Lake in Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta

  • Donlin Gold would create a 1,850-foot-deep pit lake containing arsenic, mercury, selenium, and other metals. The hazardous lake would cover two square miles — the equivalent of nearly 1,000 U.S. football fields.
  • Since these toxic chemicals are so dangerous and cannot enter the surrounding environment without disastrous consequences, Donlin would be required to operate a wastewater treatment plant for all time — even after the mine closes — saddling future generations with the burden and risk.
  • If that treatment system were to fail, these toxic metals would pollute Crooked Creek and the Kuskokwim River.

Dewatering Salmon Streams of Crooked Creek

  • The mine will dewater an 11-mile section of Crooked Creek, destroying salmon eggs and raising the temperature of the stream.

Wetlands Destruction in Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta

  • The mine would permanently destroy 2,877 acres of wetlands and more than 30 miles of streams.

Barge Traffic on Kuskokwim River

  • Mine operations would at least triple the number of barges on the Kuskokwim River in the summer, and require barges up to four times larger than the ones used today.
  • Some would carry diesel, cyanide, mercury, and other chemicals.
  • Barge traffic would cause significant interference with traditional hunting and fishing practices on the Kuskokwim River.
  • Propeller wash from the barges could destroy the eggs of rainbow smelt returning to the Kuskokwim to spawn, threatening the first abundant source of fresh fish of the year.

Fossil Fuel Pipeline and Climate Pollution

  • To power mine operations, Donlin Gold will build a 316-mile-long natural gas pipeline through fragile wetlands.
  • At a time when Alaska is warming faster than other places across the globe due to climate change, this new pipeline would only worsen greenhouse gas pollution.
  • The Donlin mine itself would emit substantially more greenhouse gases than existing mines in Alaska, accelerating climate change.

Earthjustice is representing numerous Yukon-Kuskokwim Tribes and the conservation group Cook Inletkeeper in legal challenges to key permits that have allowed the mine to advance, cases reflecting opposition from more than a dozen Alaska Native Tribes in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. 

In the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta.
Dave Cannon
In the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. The Kuskokwim River provides a critical source of wild food and serves as a bedrock of identity and cultural values for Alaska Native Tribal citizens and community members living downstream from the Donlin mine site.
Map of Earthjustice offices.

Earthjustice’s Alaska Office has locations in Juneau and Anchorage. Alaska is home to irreplaceable diversity of peoples, wildlife, and ecosystems. It includes rich Alaska Native cultures dating back millennia, the only Arctic region in the U.S., and the Tongass National Forest. Since 1978, attorneys in our Alaska regional office have fought destructive oil and gas drilling, mining, and logging that threatens the region’s communities, lands, waters, and wildlife. Learn more.

Media Inquiries: Becca Bowe, rbowe@earthjustice.org, (415) 217-2093